Cystic hygroma cytology

Pathology Outlines - Cystic / cavernous lymphangiom

Hygroma: Not a Cyst Loose tissue separates the hygroma from Dexter's skin in a well-defined sac. The sac has a dense wall and contains fluid, ranging in color from yellow to red. The hygroma resembles a cyst, but it's not a true cyst Cytology description Matrix containing and basaloid Diff-Quik stained smears: metachromatic matrix spheres with sharply defined border (hyaline globules) surrounded by basaloid tumor cells Uniform basaloid cells with scant cytoplasm, oval to angulated hyperchromatic nuclei and indistinct nucleol

Cystic Hygroma: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatmen

Cystic hygroma: Clinical, ultrasonographic, and

1. Prenat Diagn. 1994 Jul;14(7):649-50. Why karyotype cystic hygroma cells? Verschraegen-Spae MR, De Paepe A. Comment on Prenat Diagn. 1993 Aug;13(8):770-1 Cystic hygroma (CH) is a benign infiltrative malformation of the lymphatic channels. We report a case of a 28-year-old Indian female who presented with rapidly enlarging right sided neck swelling over the posterior triangle since 5 days. Complete resection of CH is sometimes not amenable because of its infiltrative nature and involvement of surrounding vital structures A hygroma is a subcutaneous swelling usually over bony prominences. It forms as a consequence of repeated trauma and is most common in older large breed dogs. These include tricoepithelioma, trichoblastoma, pilomatrixoma, etc and cannot be differentiated by cytology. Keratoacanthoma (intracutaneous cornifiying epithelioma) arises from the.

JCDR - FNAC, Cystic hygroma, Lymphatic malformation

This chapter mainly discusses the cytology of these lesions other than salivary gland and thyroid. Keywords Branchial cyst Thyroglossal cyst Cystic hygroma Epidermal inclusion cyst Mucocele Paraganglioma Carotid body tumour Parathyroid neoplasm Meningioma Olfactory neuroblastoma Basal cell carcinoma Sebaceous carcinoma Pleomorphic adenoma. Mediastinal cystic masses are well-marginated, round, epithelium-lined lesions that contain fluid. They include a variety of entities with overlapping radiologic manifestations and variable prognoses. Cysts comprise 15%-20% of all mediastinal masses (, 1) and occur in all compartments of the mediastinum 1. Introduction. A cystic hygroma is a malformation of the lymphatic system most often observed in infants and children. 1-3 Case reports of cystic hygroma in the adult are exceedingly rare and a recent report has estimated that fewer than 150 cases can be found in English-language scientific literature. 1 Also referred to as a lymphangiomas or lymphatic malformations, 1-3 cystic hygromas. Repeat mild trauma over bony prominences. Hygromas develop after repeat trauma-induced necrosis and inflammation over pressure points. Known as a false or aquired bursae. Histologically characterized by cystic spaces surrounded by dense walls of granulation tissue, the inner layer consisting of a dense layer of fibroblasts

Pathology Outlines - Cystic / cavernous lymphangioma

Cystic hygroma or lymphangioma, which is generally congenital, can occur in any part of the body, but most commonly occurs in the head and neck region . Cystic lymphangiomas consist of large macrocystic lymphatic channels with protein-rich fluid. The gold standard, hence, for diagnosis of lymphangiomas remains histopathology and cytology. CL, also called cystic hygroma (CH) or better macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM), is a benign congenital LM [ 1 ]. Children under 2 years of age are mainly affected (80-90%) with a 1.2-2.8 per 100 000 incidence rate [ 4 ]. Adults are instead rarely affected [ 2 ] Lymphangiomas are classified as lymphangioma simplex, cavernous lymphangioma and CL or cystic hygroma. CL is defined as a benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue and is usually considered as a congenital lesion Cystic hygromas are diagnosed clinically as a transilluminating cystic swelling and radiologically by ultrasound, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is confirmed by fine needle aspiration of the fluid and histology. Treatment depends on the anatomical complexity surrounding the cystic hygroma

Cystic Hygroma - Pictures, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatmen

background of cystic hygroma in the pig population has been available. The clinical phenotype of cystic hygroma in pigs resembles the human condition as well as reports of similarly affected individuals of other domestic animal species. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the hygroma cyst in pigs Cystic hygroma is a malformation of the lymphatic and vascular system and is recognized as a benign congenital tumor that affects humans and animals in the perinatal period. This congeni-tal disorder is rarely described in animals, and until today, cystic hygroma in pigs has not been described in the literature. In a purebred Piètrain litter with twelve live-born piglets, cystic hy-groma was.

Hygroma in Dogs - Integumentary System - Merck Veterinary

  1. The cystic hygroma shows Discussion a predilection for the neck (75%) and maxilla (20%), and the remaining 5% arise in rare locations such as Cystic hygroma is a rare benign tumor of congenital the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, bone, kidney, origin and in child it is obvious from birth4
  2. Ultra-sonogram showed cystic lesion with multiple septae. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was carried out, where 5 ml of straw coloured clear fluid was aspirated. whereas cystic lymphangioma, the most common type, also known as cystic hygromas, are macrocystic and easier to resect. The latter type of malformation presents as painless.
  3. imal trauma to the patien
  4. ence. They are the body's reaction to repetitive trauma and usually a result of laying too frequently on hard surfaces. The best treatment is to ensure the pro
  5. Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors constitute only 0.5%-0.8% of all tumors of which lipoma is the rarest. In general, lipoma is found just beneath the subcutaneous tissues. Here, we present a case of a 2-year-old female child with lipoma of the right PPS extending into the neck mimicking cystic hygroma on presentation
  6. Cystic hygroma is a benign congenital malformation of the lymphatic system which occur as a result of sequestration or obstruction of developing lymph vessels. This condition is approximately 50-60% appear before the end of 1st year of life, & 80-90% before the end of 2nd year of life [2, 3]. Cystic hygroma i
  7. 1. Prenat Diagn. 2000 Nov;20(11):933-4. Cytogenetic discrepancy between fetal tissue and body fluid in a fetus with cystic hygroma colli. Chen CP

Cystic hygromas do not resolve spontaneously and surgical excision is the treatment of choice in such cases. Keywords: Cystic Hygroma, Adult, Posterior Triangle. Introduction Cystic Hygroma, also known as lymphangioma is a congenital condition of the lymphatic system. This benign malformation is generally seen in infants or children They help in distinguishing it from other differentials like branchial cyst, thymic cyst, pericardial cyst, bronchogenic cyst, cystic teratoma and cystic thymoma. On the basis of the above findings, a confident diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma can be made on cytology even in under-resourced centers. Financial support and sponsorship Nil

Introduction. Lymphangioma is a benign and common disorder in the pediatric age group. Cervical cystic hygroma was first described clinically in 1828 by Redenbacker and pathologically in 1843 by Wernher. 1 They are frequently seen in the neck (75%) and axilla (20%). 2 Most mediastinal cystic hygromas are extensions of cervical lesions, and cystic hygroma confined solely to the mediastinum is. Chylopericardium is a rare and benign condition. Apart from common causes like non-surgical trauma, tuberculosis, malignancy, radiation, and postoperative, mediastinal cystic hygroma presenting as chylopericardium is an extremely rare entity. Primary or idiopathic chylopericardium is diagnosed when the precise cause is not known. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. We report a 27-year-old lady.

Internet Scientific Publications

Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Salivary Gland Lesions: A Systematic Review. One case was the others had acinic cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic diagnosed as retention cyst and diagnosed as low- carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma (grade I), ductal grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. 2 Retention cyst* 8 Lymphoepithelial lesion 3 Cystic hygroma. Cystic hygroma of the head and neck. I Laryngol Otol 1984; 98:613-19. 4. GoodmanI, McClintock I ,Denton GR, et al. Cystic hygromas in adults. Arch Surg 1963; 86:641-4. 5. Wiggs Jr. WI, Sismanis A.Cystic hygroma in the adult:Twocase reports. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1994; 110:239-41. 6. Sabin FR.The lymphatic system in human embryos with consid Biopsy and cytology analysis demonstrated this mass to be a cystic hygroma of adult-onset.DISCUSSIONGiven its multi-loculated nature and size, it was surgically excised and one year later the patient is without evidence of recurrence.CONCLUSIONAs the incidence of adult-onset cystic hygroma is rare, the nature and reporting of their management. Microscopy demonstrated cystic spaces lined by endothelial cells with aggregates of mature lymphocytes [Figure 1]. The excision was reported as complete and there was no evidence of recurrence till the final review of the case. Lymphangiomas are classified as lymphangioma simplex, cavernous lymphangioma and CL or cystic hygroma. CL is defined.

Cystic Hygroma in a Dog Dog Care - Daily Pupp

Cytology revealed lymphocytic preponderance which suggested a benign cystic lesion. The lymphatic malformation involving the right breast was excised through a periareolar incision. A separate incision was given in the axilla and the axillary mass was excised upto the axillary vein. cystic hygroma appears as a radiopaque, multiloculated,. Abstract: Cystic hygroma is a rare vascular cystic tumor of lymphatic origin. Mostly it occurs in neck. But rarely it can occur also in anterior or superior mediastinum. Presentation of tumor usually gets delayed as most of them are asymptomatic presence of scant macrophages on cytology. The main differential diagnosis of a large plunging ranula is a cystic hygroma that represents a lymphatic malformation, typically presenting as a unilateral cystic neck swelling. It can be difficult to distinguish from plunging ranula on history and physical examination The typical location at upper outer quadrant and axillary tail should be kept in mind. The imaging modalities and cytology may support the diagnosis. The purpose of breast imaging is to demonstrate anatomical extent of the lesion. REFERENCES: 1. Guner A, Aydin A, Celik F - Cystic hygromas in adult - reports of two cases

Pathology Outlines - Adenoid cystic carcinom

  1. Cystic hygroma is an uncommon differential diagnosis of a progressively enlarging neck mass in adulthood. In lesions diagnosed pre-natally, before 30 weeks, chromosomal abnormalities are common. When diagnosed in the prenatal period, this disease may be associated with Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, cardiac anomalies, trisomy syndromes and.
  2. INTRODUCTION: Cystic hygroma (lymphangioma) is a benign congenital malformation of the lymphatic system that occurs as a result of sequestration or obstruction of developing lymphatic vessels. 1, 2 These lesions are usually discovered in infant or children younger than two years of age. Occurrence in adults is uncommon, and fewer than 150 cases of adult lymphangioma have been reported in the.
  3. Cystic hygromas Sternomastoid tumour Teratomas Thyroid masses Branchial cyst—first, second, third, fourth Midline of neck Thyroglossal cysts Dermoids (FNA) cytology or excision may be needed to confirm the diagnosis, and this must be done aseptically to prevent introducing infection
  4. • To differentiate benign vs. malignant nodes, although additional cytology may be needed to identify histological origin Other Indication/mass: • Mass seen on prior imaging or detected on physical exam (e.g. congenital masses such as cystic hygroma
  5. Cystic schwannoma in neck: Fallacious diagnosis arrived on fine needle aspiration cytology Cystic schwannoma in neck: Fallacious diagnosis arrived on fine needle aspiration cytology Satarkar, Rahul N.; Kolte, Sachin S.; Vujhini, Sudhir Kumar 2011-11-01 00:00:00 Dear Editor: The head and neck region is a source of swelling of a wide range of pathological lesions
Cystic lymphangioma of the adrenal gland: Report of a case

Head and neck cytopathology - Libre Patholog

Cervicofacial cystic hygroma. Patterns of recurrence and management of the difficult case. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991;117(5):546-553. Charabi B, Bretlau P, Bille M, et al. Cystic hygroma of the head and neck?a long-term follow-up of 44 cases. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 2000;543:248-250. Chong KT, Ong CL. Cystic hygroma in adulthood If a cystic lesion disappears after aspiration, then surgery is deferred. However, if the cyst recurrs, then it should be removed. Although the cyst fluid can be sent for cytology, the sensitivity of this test is probably low for detecting the presence of cancer Thyroglossal duct cyst presents most frequently in the midline of the neck, either at or just below the level of the hyoid bone. They generally manifest as painless neck swelling, and they move on protrusion of tongue and during swallowing. A case of thyroglossal cyst was reported in the left submandibular region in a 14-year-old girl, above the level of hyoid bone; ultrasound examination. The less common pathologies presenting as swelling in the neck are carotid body tumour, bronchial cyst, thyroglossal cyst, cystic hygroma, pharyngeal pouch and lumps of skin appendages. [1] FNAC allows the proper assessment of the cells aspirated from the swellings A sternocleidomastoid tumor of infancy, also known as fibromatosis colli of infancy, is a rare benign mass in the muscle on the side of the neck. The tumor is usually on the right side, and is firm, measuring a couple centimeters in diameter. It appears in a newborn, usually between the second and fourth weeks of life

Second branchial cleft sinus or fistulas, on the other hand, present earlier. Fistulas extend from the skin surface anterior to the middle of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, pass between the internal and external carotid arteries and eventually drain into the tonsillar fossa. Typically, second branchial cleft cysts present as a rounded swelling. 6. Baddoura FK, Varma VA: Cytology of multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. Acta Cytol 1990, 34:524-528. 7. Mennemeyer R, Smith M: Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma: a report with electron microscopy of a case mimicking intraabdominal cystic hygroma (lymphangioma). Cancer 1979, 44:692-698. 8. Moore JH, Crum CP, Chandler JG, Feldman PS. Cystic lymphangioma is a benign and usually slow-growing tumor of the lymphatic system that is mainly diagnosed in the first few years of life. The head and neck area are the principal locations, but they may develop in virtually any part of the body. Symptoms depend on the site, but a slowly enlarging mass is frequently encountered. The diagnosis rests on imaging studies such as computed.

Pathology Outlines - Lymphoepithelial cyst

Cystic swellings in the neck have varied aetiology and can be a diagnostic dilemma. Some of the commonly seen cystic swellings are thyroglossal cyst, branchial pouch cysts and cystic hygroma. Branchial pouch cysts usually arise from the first and second, unusually from the rest Cystic hygroma. These usually present in the neonate or in early infancy and consist of large cysts filled with clear lymph. The swelling occurs laterally in the posterior triangle and may be bilateral with the following characteristics: It is brilliantly translucent (a feature that distinguishes it from other neck masses). It increases in size.

Propranolol Alleviating the Challenging Clinical Course of Birth Onset Generalized Lymphangiomatosis. A Case Report A B S T R A C T. Background: Cystic hygromas, interchangeably named Lymphangiomas, are rare, congenital, benign lesions due to an abnormal lymphatic system development that tend to occur mostly in the head, neck, and oral cavity. Case Presentation: This is a case of 18 year old. Lymphatic malformations (LMs), primarily diagnosed in children, are uncommon in adults. Nevertheless, one should consider LM in one's differential diagnosis in cases of adult neck masses. We report..

Fibromatosis colli is an unusual cause of a neck lump in infants, but the most common cause of congenital muscular torticollis. Diagnosis can be made confidently with a clinical examination and ultrasonography, allowing early parental reassurance and avoiding invasive investigations. The mainstay of treatment is physiotherapy, and results in. Splenic lymphangioma is a rare malformation of the splenic lymphatic channels, mostly seen in children. It is characterized by the presence of cysts, resulting from increases in the size and number of thin-walled lymphatic vessels that are abnormally interconnected and dilated. The condition may be restricted to the spleen, but in most cases it.

Surgical management of adult-onset cystic hygroma in the

Cervical thymic cyst (CTC) is a rare congenital disease that can appear during the developmental course of the thymus. CTCs rarely present in adulthood and can be difficult to diagnose. We present a case of CTC mimicking a cystic lymph node in an adult patient. A 57-year-old female presented a with a left left-sided painless neck mass, which was found in two weeks before prior. Computed. 12) Cystic hygroma. 13) Arteriovenous malformation. 14) Branchial cyst. 15) Abscess. 16) Sebaceous cyst. What is the major differential diagnosis of a pediatric neck mass 1) Thyroglossal duct cyst (midline). 2) Branchial cleft cyst (lateral). 3) Lymphadenopathy. 4) Abscess. 5) Cystic hygroma. 6) Hemangioma. 7) Tcratoma/dcrmoid cyst. 8) Thyroid.

Cystic lymphangioma is also called cystic hygroma or lymphangioma cysticum, is a 'macrocytic' lymphatic malformation, and is composed of large fluid-filled spaces. Cystic lymphangioma appears as a skin colored, red or bluish, somewhat transparent, swelling under the skin. Cystic lymphangioma most often affects the neck, armpits or groin Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a highly accurate and safe procedure for the evaluation of salivary gland lesions. Although complications are extremely rare, salivary gland FNA may cause hemorrhage, facial nerve injury, or cellulitis at the entry point. The risk of these complications increases in tumors of high vascularity. We report a case of unexpected facial nerve palsy following a fine. On account of the large neck mass present since early childhood, cystic hygroma was suspected clinically. However, the patient was referred for preoperative cytology. The mass was diffuse, about 10 × 6 cm, and occupying the entire left side of the neck [, inset]. It was firm, non-fluctuant, nontender, and not moving with deglutition or. Cystic hygroma (CH) is a rare benign vascular tumor caused by a congenital malformation of the lymphatic vessels. It is commonly located in the cervicofacial region [1], especially in the posterior cervical triangle, though it may be found anywhere else in the body. More than 60% of CH are present at Cystic Hygroma - A Rare Appearance in Adulthoo

Fine‐needle aspiration cytology of lymphangioma of the

Cystic hygroma is a disfiguring benign lesion commonly observed in the neck and face regions of children. The common complications of these malformations are respiratory obstruction, dysphagia, infection, and hemorrhage. Here, we present an uncommon complication of spontaneous rupture of a cystic hygroma CYSTIC HYGROMA o Earliest swelling one can see in neck o Occur as cysts of various size o Commonly in neck where tissue planes are more lax o May spread into cheek, FOM, tongue, parotid, ear canal . o Cytology o Radiolog Cystic hygroma Naresh Kumar 1, Munish Kohli 1, Saumya Pandey 2, S.P.S. Tulsi 3 1 Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Saraswati Dental College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India 2 Department of Prosthodontics, Saraswati Dental College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India 3 Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Sahara Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, Indi The cytology will clearly explain to the number of mature lymphocytes that are present with no identification of the malignant cells. Though you have several ways of identifying the problem and providing treatment to the problem there are situations where the cystic hygroma in adults can be quite difficult hygroma, cystic teratoma, lipoma, cystic lymphade-nopathy/lymphoma. 3) Metastatic lymph nodes with cystic changes should also be considered carefully as The cytology of the cystic fluid usually cannot offer any diagnostic information; for example, in this report, aspiration cytology of the mass yielded only.

A rare case of cystic hygroma in neck and extending into

cysts, branchial cleft cysts, carotid body tumors, cystic hygromas, pharyngeal pouch abnormalities and tumours of skin appendages . European Scientific Journal March 2016 edition vol.12, No.9 ISSN: 1857 ī 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 cytology with 100% accuracy, figure 2 shows metastatic poorl bronchial cyst, thyroglossal cyst, cystic hygroma, pharyngeal pouch and lumps of skin appendages.1 Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, quick and inexpensive method that is used to sample superficial masses like those found in the neck and is usually performed in the outpatient clinic. It cause

Cystic masses of the supraclavicular fossa: clinical

  1. cysts, branchial cleft cysts, carotid body tumors, cystic hygromas, pharyngeal pouch abnormalities and lumps of skin appendages. 1 Lumps may be classified in relation to the triangles of the neck. The differential diagnosis in a patient presenting with neck mass is often extensive and will vary with age
  2. Cystic hygromas are fluid-filled sacs resulting from blockage of the lymphatic duct system. Cystic hygromas can be single or multiple cysts found most common in the neck region. A cystic hygroma can be present at birth (congenital), or it may develop at any time A cystic hygroma in a developing baby can progress t
  3. Cervical Cystic Hygroma in an Adult Parmod Kalsotra, A. Prusty, Anil Gupta, Monika Manhas Abstract Cystic hygroma are benign tumors in the early childhood mainly manifesting in the head and neck region..Cystic hygromas manifesting in elderly patients have not been reported in the literature so for

In some cases fine-needle aspiration cytology may be required for the confirmation of the lesion. Extirpation of the neck cystic lesion with exact histological examination is necessary and recommended in all cases except hygroma/lymphangioma/ in special cases. Cystic hygromas . Cystic hygromas are common form of lymfangiomas, which are. Cystic hygroma is thought to result from congenital malformation of the lymphatic system occurring as early as 6th week of intrauterine life. The adult-type of cystic hygroma usually presents as a soft one-sided asymptomatic neck lump which may be unilocular or multilocular. Cytology of the aspirate from the swelling was negative for.

Why karyotype cystic hygroma cells

  1. Presence of anechoic mass with internal septations is diagnostic of cystic hygroma which is in contrast with Goyal et al 1. In the present study findings of all other neck swellings seen on USG were found to be same on FNAC/ Histopathogy. The present study USG clearly establishes the swellings as solid in 34 and cystic in 16. In 26% of cases.
  2. Most common cystic lesion seen in midline of neck are dermoid cysts, epidermoid cyst, teratoma , cystic hygroma and rarely adenxal tumours of skin . In such cases,gold standard of management is ultrasonography guided FNAC. The overall sensitivity of FNAC in the diagnosis of neck masses was 83.01% and specificity was 78.94%
  3. ation 25500 27000 31875 33750 46 40.29.3 S1 Cystic Hygroma Excision - Minor Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC)/USG local area/ CT Local Area, Clinical Photograp
  4. al cystic hygroma (lymphangioma),.
  5. Cystic hygromas, more widely known as lymphangiomas, are rare, hamartomatous, con-genital malformations of the lymphatic system with no risk of malignant transformation. They are classified as cavernous, lymphangioma sim-plex, or cystic lymphangioma4. Cystic lymphan-gioma is a malformation of the lymphatic sys-tem
  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology has been advocated as an essential investigation. thyroglossal duct cyst, cystic hygroma, branchial cleft cysts, acute infection or cellulitis of the floor of the mouth, infections of submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands, floor of the mouth and adjacent salivary glands benign and malignant tumors,.
  7. Both presented as cystic swellings in the left side of the neck and were pre-operatively diagnosed as a cystic hygroma and a solitary thyroid nodule. Investigations included blood counts, ultrasonograms, thyroid scans, and aspiration cytology. Both lesions could be easily excised by the cervical route
Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)Cystic hygroma dt-2Preoperative diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma of the colon

using ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and cytology. Br J Radiol 1997; 70 (835): 750-3 12Salvador A, Rosenberg HK, Horrow MM, Kumar SL. Abdominal lymphangioma in a preterm infant. J Perinatol 1996; 16 (4): 305-8 13Thomas RL. Prenatal diagnosis of giant cystic hygroma: prognosis, counselling, and management; case presentation and. Cystic hygromas. Cystic hygromas are anomalies of the lymph channels and present as lateral neck swellings. They are soft and irregular, and usually present at birth . Typically, the hygroma enlarges during crying and the Valsalva manoeuvre. They transilluminate brilliantly Cystic hygroma is a benign congenital lymph angiomatous malformation with the incidence of 1.2 to 2.8 per 100,000 infants. 4,5 Of these, 50 to 60% are evident at birth and 80 to 90% present by 2 years of age.4,5 Cystic hygroma are rare in adults with less than 150 cases reported in English language literature.6,7,8 Etiology i Thyroglossal duct cyst, thyroid or parathyroid lesions, and cystic hygroma or cystic teratoma are among other differential diagnoses. A variety of imaging modalities are useful for diagnosing undescended thymus such as MRI, nuclear scan (Gallium 61), computed tomography, ultrasonography, or conventional radiography [ 25 ] • Cystic hygroma • Brachial cleft FNA cytology and the higher yield of missed malignancies based upon nodule sonographic pattern rather than growth, the follow-up of thyroid nodules with benign cytology diagnoses should be determined by risk stratification based upon US pattern